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Fluid level checks Ford Fiesta 2008 - 2011 Petrol 1.25

OnDemand step-by-step maintenance & repair BETA

Ford Fiesta 2008 - 2011  | 1.25 Fluid level checks

  • time 5 to 30 minutes
  • difficulty 1

Underbonnet check points

Petrol engine models 1 Engine oil level dipstick 2 Engine oil filler cap 3 Coolant reservoir (expansion tank) 4 Brake and clutch fluid reservoir 5 Washer fluid reservoir 6 Battery 7 Engine compartment fuse/relay box
1.4 litre diesel engine models 1 Engine oil level dipstick 2 Engine oil filler cap 3 Coolant reservoir (expansion tank) 4 Brake and clutch fluid reservoir 5 Washer fluid reservoir 6 Battery 7 Engine compartment fuse/relay box
1.6 litre diesel engine models 1 Engine oil level dipstick 2 Engine oil filler cap 3 Coolant reservoir (expansion tank) 4 Brake and clutch fluid reservoir 5 Washer fluid reservoir 6 Battery 7 Engine compartment fuse/relay box

Engine oil level

HINT: If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of the oil will remain in the upper engine components, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.

The correct oil

1 Modern engines place great demands on their oil. It is very important that the correct oil for your car is used.
Engine oil grade Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 5W/30 Ford specification WSS-M2C913-C

Car care

2 If you have to add oil frequently, you should check whether you have any oil leaks. Place some clean paper under the car overnight, and check for stains in the morning. If there are no leaks, then the engine may be burning oil, or the oil may only be leaking when the engine is running.
3 Always maintain the level between the upper and lower dipstick marks (see photo 3). If the level is too low, severe engine damage may occur. Oil seal failure may result if the engine is overfilled by adding too much oil.
The dipstick is brightly coloured for easy identification (see Underbonnet check points for exact location). Withdraw the dipstick.
Using a clean rag or paper towel remove all oil from the dipstick. Insert the clean dipstick into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it again.
Note the level on the end of the dipstick, which should be between the upper (MAX) mark and lower (MIN) mark. Approximately 1.0 litre of oil will raise the level from the lower mark to the upper mark.
Oil is added through the filler cap. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level. A funnel may help to reduce spillage. Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Avoid overfilling (see Car care). If you need to renew the oil and filter, click below
- Close + Open

Engine oil and filter change

1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the most important preventative maintenance procedures which can be undertaken by the DIY owner. As engine oil ages, it becomes diluted and contaminated, which leads to premature engine wear.
2 Before starting this procedure, gather together all the necessary tools and materials. Also make sure that you have plenty of clean rags and newspapers handy, to mop-up any spills. Ideally, the engine oil should be warm, as it will drain more easily, and more built-up sludge will be removed with it. Take care not to touch the exhaust or any other hot parts of the engine when working under the car. To avoid any possibility of scalding, and to protect yourself from possible skin irritants and other harmful contaminants in used engine oils, it is advisable to wear gloves when carrying out this work.
3 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the car and support it on axle stands.
4 Remove the oil filler cap (see illustration) .
Removing the oil filler cap
5 Using a spanner, or preferably a socket and bar, slacken the drain plug about half a turn. Position the draining container under the drain plug, then remove the plug completely (see illustrations) .
Slacken the oil drain plug on the back of the sump with a socket . . .
. . . then unscrew it by hand, and allow the oil to drain
6 Allow some time for the oil to drain, noting that it may be necessary to reposition the container as the oil flow slows to a trickle.
7 After all the oil has drained, wipe the drain plug with a clean rag. Examine the condition of the sealing O-ring, and renew it if it shows signs of damage which may prevent an oil-tight seal. Clean the area around the drain plug opening, then refit the plug complete with O-ring and tighten it to 28 Nm (21 Ibf ft).
8 Move the container into position under the oil filter, which is located on the front of the cylinder block (see illustration) .
Oil filter cartridge (arrowed)
9 Use an oil filter removal tool to slacken the filter initially, then unscrew it by hand the rest of the way (see illustration) . Empty the oil from the old filter into the container.
Using a strap wrench to slacken the filter cartridge
10 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt and sludge from the filter sealing area on the engine.
11 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter, then screw the filter into position on the engine (see illustration) . Tighten the filter firmly by hand only – do not use any tools.
Apply a light coating of engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter
12 Remove the old oil and all tools from under the car, then lower the car to the ground.
13 Fill the engine through the filler hole, using the correct grade and type of oil. Pour in half the specified quantity of oil first, then wait a few minutes for the oil to drain into the sump. Continue to add oil, a small quantity at a time, until the level is up to the lower mark on the dipstick. Adding approximately a further 0.5 to 1.0 litre will bring the level up to the upper mark on the dipstick.
Engine oil quantity:
  1.25 and 1.4 litre engines 3.8 litres
  1.6 litre engines 4.0 litres
Engine oil grade Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 5W/30 Ford specification WSS-M2C913-C
14 Start the engine and run it for a few minutes, while checking for leaks around the oil filter seal and the sump drain plug. Note that there may be a delay of a few seconds before the oil pressure warning light goes out when the engine is first started, as the oil circulates through the new oil filter and the engine oil galleries before the pressure builds-up.
15 Stop the engine, and wait a few minutes for the oil to settle in the sump once more. With the new oil circulated and the filter now completely full, recheck the level on the dipstick, and add more oil as necessary.
16 Dispose of the used engine oil and filter safely. Do not discard the old filter with domestic household waste. The facility for waste oil disposal provided by many local council refuse tips and/or recycling centres generally has a filter receptacle alongside.
- Close + Open

Engine oil and filter change

1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the most important preventative maintenance procedures which can be undertaken by the DIY owner. As engine oil ages, it becomes diluted and contaminated, which leads to premature engine wear.
2 Before starting this procedure, gather together all the necessary tools and materials. Also make sure that you have plenty of clean rags and newspapers handy, to mop-up any spills. Ideally, the engine oil should be warm, as it will drain more easily, and more built-up sludge will be removed with it. Take care not to touch the exhaust or any other hot parts of the engine when working under the car. To avoid any possibility of scalding, and to protect yourself from possible skin irritants and other harmful contaminants in used engine oils, it is advisable to wear gloves when carrying out this work.
3 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the car and support it on axle stands.
4 Remove the oil filler cap (see illustration) .
Removing the oil filler cap
5 Using a spanner, or preferably a socket and bar, slacken the drain plug about half a turn. Position the draining container under the drain plug, then remove the plug completely (see illustrations) .
Slacken the oil drain plug on the back of the sump with a socket . . .
. . . then unscrew it by hand, and allow the oil to drain
6 Allow some time for the oil to drain, noting that it may be necessary to reposition the container as the oil flow slows to a trickle.
7 After all the oil has drained, wipe the drain plug with a clean rag. Examine the condition of the sealing O-ring, and renew it if it shows signs of damage which may prevent an oil-tight seal. Clean the area around the drain plug opening, then refit the plug complete with O-ring and tighten it to 28 Nm (21 Ibf ft).
8 Move the container into position under the oil filter, which is located on the front of the cylinder block (see illustration) .
Oil filter cartridge (arrowed)
9 Use an oil filter removal tool to slacken the filter initially, then unscrew it by hand the rest of the way (see illustration) . Empty the oil from the old filter into the container.
Using a strap wrench to slacken the filter cartridge
10 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt and sludge from the filter sealing area on the engine.
11 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter, then screw the filter into position on the engine (see illustration) . Tighten the filter firmly by hand only – do not use any tools.
Apply a light coating of engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter
12 Remove the old oil and all tools from under the car, then lower the car to the ground.
13 Fill the engine through the filler hole, using the correct grade and type of oil. Pour in half the specified quantity of oil first, then wait a few minutes for the oil to drain into the sump. Continue to add oil, a small quantity at a time, until the level is up to the lower mark on the dipstick. Adding approximately a further 0.5 to 1.0 litre will bring the level up to the upper mark on the dipstick.
Engine oil quantity:
  1.25 and 1.4 litre engines 3.8 litres
  1.6 litre engines 4.0 litres
Engine oil grade Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 5W/30 Ford specification WSS-M2C913-C
14 Start the engine and run it for a few minutes, while checking for leaks around the oil filter seal and the sump drain plug. Note that there may be a delay of a few seconds before the oil pressure warning light goes out when the engine is first started, as the oil circulates through the new oil filter and the engine oil galleries before the pressure builds-up.
15 Stop the engine, and wait a few minutes for the oil to settle in the sump once more. With the new oil circulated and the filter now completely full, recheck the level on the dipstick, and add more oil as necessary.
16 Dispose of the used engine oil and filter safely. Do not discard the old filter with domestic household waste. The facility for waste oil disposal provided by many local council refuse tips and/or recycling centres generally has a filter receptacle alongside.

Coolant level

Warning: Do not attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very great risk of scalding. Do not leave open containers of coolant about, as it is poisonous.

Car care

4 With a sealed-type cooling system, adding coolant should not be necessary on a regular basis. If frequent topping-up is required, it is likely there is a leak. Check the radiator, all hoses and joint faces for signs of staining or wetness, and rectify as necessary.
5 It is important that antifreeze is used in the cooling system all year round, not just during the winter months. Don’t top-up with water alone, as the antifreeze will become diluted.
The coolant level varies with the temperature of the engine, and is visible through the expansion tank. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the MAX and MIN marks on the front of the reservoir. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the MAX mark.
If topping-up is necessary, wait until the engine is cold. Slowly unscrew the expansion tank cap, to release any pressure present in the cooling system, and remove it.
Add a mixture of water and antifreeze to the expansion tank until the coolant level is halfway between the level marks. Use only the specified antifreeze – if using Ford antifreeze, make sure it is the same type and colour as that already in the system. Refit the cap and tighten it securely. Should you need to replace the coolant, click below
- Close + Open

Coolant replacement

Warning: Do not allow antifreeze to come in contact with your skin or painted surfaces of the vehicle. Flush contaminated areas immediately with plenty of water. Don’t store new coolant, or leave old coolant lying around, where it’s accessible to children or pets – they’re attracted by its sweet smell. Ingestion of even a small amount of coolant can be fatal. Wipe up garage-floor and drip-pan spills immediately. Keep antifreeze containers covered, and repair cooling system leaks as soon as they’re noticed.
Warning: Never remove the expansion tank filler cap when the engine is running, or has just been switched off, as the cooling system will be hot, and the consequent escaping steam and scalding coolant could cause serious injury.
Warning: Wait until the engine is cold before starting these procedures.

Coolant draining

1 To drain the system, first remove the expansion tank filler cap.
2 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the vehicle and support it securely on axle stands.
3 Place a suitable container beneath the right-hand side of the radiator.
4 Release the retaining clamp and disconnect the bottom hose from the radiator. Allow the coolant to drain into the container.
5 Once the coolant has stopped draining from the radiator, reconnect the bottom hose and secure with the retaining clamp.

System flushing

6 With time, the cooling system may gradually lose its efficiency, as the radiator core becomes choked with rust, scale deposits from the water, and other sediment. To minimise this, as well as using only good-quality antifreeze and clean soft water, the system should be flushed as follows whenever any part of it is disturbed, and/or when the coolant is renewed.
7 With the coolant drained, refit the radiator bottom hose and refill the system with fresh water. Refit the expansion tank filler cap, start the engine and warm it up to normal operating temperature, then stop it and (after allowing it to cool down completely) drain the system again. Repeat as necessary until only clean water can be seen to emerge, then refill finally with the specified coolant mixture.
8 If only clean, soft water and good-quality antifreeze (even if not to Ford’s specification) has been used, and the coolant has been renewed at the suggested intervals, the above procedure will be sufficient to keep the system clean for a considerable length of time. If, however, the system has been neglected, a more thorough operation will be required, as follows.
9 First drain the coolant, then disconnect the radiator top hose. Insert a garden hose into the radiator top hose connection, and allow water to circulate through the radiator until it runs clean from the bottom outlet.
10 To flush the engine, insert the garden hose into the radiator bottom hose, wrap a piece of rag around the garden hose to seal the connection, and allow water to circulate until it runs clear.
11 Try the effect of repeating this procedure in the top hose, although this may not be effective, since the thermostat will probably close and prevent the flow of water.
12 In severe cases of contamination, reverse-flushing of the radiator may be necessary. This may be achieved by inserting the garden hose into the bottom outlet, wrapping a piece of rag around the hose to seal the connection, then flushing the radiator until clear water emerges from the top hose outlet.
13 The use of chemical cleaners is not recommended, and should be necessary only as a last resort; the scouring action of some chemical cleaners may lead to other cooling system problems. Normally, regular renewal of the coolant will prevent excessive contamination of the system.

Coolant filling

14 With the cooling system drained and flushed, ensure that all disturbed hose unions are correctly secured. If it was raised, lower the vehicle to the ground.
15 Set the heater temperature control to maximum heat, but ensure the blower is turned off.
16 Prepare a sufficient quantity of the specified coolant mixture (see below); allow for a surplus, so as to have a reserve supply for topping-up.
Coolant quantity 5.5 litres
Antifreeze type Motorcraft SuperPlus pink/red antifreeze Ford specification WSS-M97B44-D
17 Slowly fill the system through the expansion tank. Since the tank is the highest point in the system, all the air in the system should be displaced into the tank by the rising liquid. Slow pouring reduces the possibility of air being trapped and forming airlocks.
18 Continue filling until the coolant level reaches the expansion tank MAX level line (see illustration) , then refit the filler cap.
Fill the cooling system until the lever reaches the MAX line on the expansion tank
19 Start the engine and run it at 2500 rpm for 15 minutes. If the level in the expansion tank drops significantly, top-up to the MAX level line, to minimise the amount of air circulating in the system.
20 Increase the engine speed to 5000 rpm, then allow it to return to idle. Repeat this sequence 6 times.
21 Increase the engine speed to 4000 rpm, maintain this speed for 10 seconds, then reduce the engine speed to 2500 rpm and maintain this speed for 10 minutes.
22 Stop the engine, then leave the car to cool down completely (overnight, if possible).
23 With the system cool, open the expansion tank, and top-up the tank to the MAX level line. Refit the filler cap, tightening it securely, and clean up any spillage.
24 After refilling, always check carefully all components of the system (but especially any unions disturbed during draining and flushing) for signs of coolant leaks. Fresh antifreeze has a searching action, which will rapidly expose any weak points in the system.

Antifreeze type and mixture

Caution: Do not use engine antifreeze in the windscreen/tailgate washer system, as it will damage the vehicle’s paintwork. A screenwash additive should be added to the washer system in its maker’s recommended quantities.
25 If the vehicle’s history (and therefore the quality of the antifreeze in it) is unknown, owners are advised to drain and thoroughly reverse-flush the system, before refilling with fresh coolant mixture.
26 If the antifreeze used is to Ford’s specification, the levels of protection it affords are indicated in the coolant packaging.
27 To give the recommended standard mixture ratio for antifreeze, 50% (by volume) of antifreeze must be mixed with 50% of clean, soft water; if you are using any other type of antifreeze, follow its manufacturer’s instructions to achieve the correct ratio.
28 You are unlikely to fully drain the system at any one time (unless the engine is being completely stripped), and the capacities quoted in the Specifications are therefore slightly academic for routine coolant renewal. As a guide, only two-thirds of the system’s total capacity is likely to be needed for coolant renewal.
29 As the drained system will be partially filled with flushing water, in order to establish the recommended mixture ratio, measure out 50% of the system capacity in antifreeze and pour it into the hose/expansion tank as described above, then top-up with water.
30 Before adding antifreeze, the cooling system should be drained, preferably flushed, and all hoses checked for condition and security. As noted earlier, fresh antifreeze will rapidly find any weaknesses in the system.
31 After filling with antifreeze, a label should be attached to the expansion tank, stating the type and concentration of antifreeze used, and the date installed. Any subsequent topping-up should be made with the same type and concentration of antifreeze.

General cooling system checks

32 The engine should be cold for the cooling system checks, so perform the following procedure before driving the vehicle, or after it has been shut off for at least three hours.
33 Remove the expansion tank filler cap, and clean it thoroughly inside and out with a rag. Also clean the filler neck on the expansion tank. The presence of rust or corrosion in the filler neck indicates that the coolant should be changed. The coolant inside the expansion tank should be relatively clean and transparent. If it is rust-coloured, drain and flush the system, and refill with a fresh coolant mixture.
34 Carefully check the radiator hoses and heater hoses along their entire length; renew any hose which is cracked, swollen or deteriorated.
35 Inspect all other cooling system components (joint faces, etc) for leaks. A leak in the cooling system will usually show up as white- or antifreeze-coloured deposits on the area adjoining the leak. Where any problems of this nature are found on system components, renew the component or gasket.

Airlocks

36 If, after draining and refilling the system, symptoms of overheating are found which did not occur previously, then the fault is almost certainly due to trapped air at some point in the system, causing an airlock and restricting the flow of coolant; usually, the air is trapped because the system was refilled too quickly.
37 If an airlock is suspected, first try gently squeezing all visible coolant hoses. A coolant hose which is full of air feels quite different to one full of coolant when squeezed. After refilling the system, most airlocks will clear once the system has cooled, and been topped-up.
38 While the engine is running at operating temperature, switch on the heater and heater fan, and check for heat output. Provided there is sufficient coolant in the system, lack of heat output could be due to an airlock in the system.
39 Airlocks can have more serious effects than simply reducing heater output – a severe airlock could reduce coolant flow around the engine. Check that the radiator top hose is hot when the engine is at operating temperature – a top hose which stays cold could be the result of an airlock (or a non-opening thermostat).
40 If the problem persists, stop the engine and allow it to cool down completely, before unscrewing the expansion tank filler cap or loosening the hose clips and squeezing the hoses to bleed out the trapped air. In the worst case, the system will have to be at least partially drained (this time, the coolant can be saved for re-use) and flushed to clear the problem. If all else fails, have the system evacuated and vacuum filled by a suitably-equipped garage.

Expansion tank cap check

41 Wait until the engine is completely cold – perform this check before the engine is started for the first time in the day.
42 Place a wad of cloth over the expansion tank cap, then unscrew it slowly and remove it.
43 Examine the condition of the rubber seal on the underside of the cap. If the rubber appears to have hardened, or cracks are visible in the seal edges, a new cap should be fitted.
44 If the car is several years old, or has covered a large mileage, consider renewing the cap regardless of its apparent condition – they are not expensive. If the pressure relief valve built into the cap fails, excess pressure in the system will lead to puzzling failures of hoses and other cooling system components.
- Close + Open

Coolant replacement

Warning: Do not allow antifreeze to come in contact with your skin or painted surfaces of the vehicle. Flush contaminated areas immediately with plenty of water. Don’t store new coolant, or leave old coolant lying around, where it’s accessible to children or pets – they’re attracted by its sweet smell. Ingestion of even a small amount of coolant can be fatal. Wipe up garage-floor and drip-pan spills immediately. Keep antifreeze containers covered, and repair cooling system leaks as soon as they’re noticed.
Warning: Never remove the expansion tank filler cap when the engine is running, or has just been switched off, as the cooling system will be hot, and the consequent escaping steam and scalding coolant could cause serious injury.
Warning: Wait until the engine is cold before starting these procedures.

Coolant draining

1 To drain the system, first remove the expansion tank filler cap.
2 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the vehicle and support it securely on axle stands.
3 Place a suitable container beneath the right-hand side of the radiator.
4 Release the retaining clamp and disconnect the bottom hose from the radiator. Allow the coolant to drain into the container.
5 Once the coolant has stopped draining from the radiator, reconnect the bottom hose and secure with the retaining clamp.

System flushing

6 With time, the cooling system may gradually lose its efficiency, as the radiator core becomes choked with rust, scale deposits from the water, and other sediment. To minimise this, as well as using only good-quality antifreeze and clean soft water, the system should be flushed as follows whenever any part of it is disturbed, and/or when the coolant is renewed.
7 With the coolant drained, refit the radiator bottom hose and refill the system with fresh water. Refit the expansion tank filler cap, start the engine and warm it up to normal operating temperature, then stop it and (after allowing it to cool down completely) drain the system again. Repeat as necessary until only clean water can be seen to emerge, then refill finally with the specified coolant mixture.
8 If only clean, soft water and good-quality antifreeze (even if not to Ford’s specification) has been used, and the coolant has been renewed at the suggested intervals, the above procedure will be sufficient to keep the system clean for a considerable length of time. If, however, the system has been neglected, a more thorough operation will be required, as follows.
9 First drain the coolant, then disconnect the radiator top hose. Insert a garden hose into the radiator top hose connection, and allow water to circulate through the radiator until it runs clean from the bottom outlet.
10 To flush the engine, insert the garden hose into the radiator bottom hose, wrap a piece of rag around the garden hose to seal the connection, and allow water to circulate until it runs clear.
11 Try the effect of repeating this procedure in the top hose, although this may not be effective, since the thermostat will probably close and prevent the flow of water.
12 In severe cases of contamination, reverse-flushing of the radiator may be necessary. This may be achieved by inserting the garden hose into the bottom outlet, wrapping a piece of rag around the hose to seal the connection, then flushing the radiator until clear water emerges from the top hose outlet.
13 The use of chemical cleaners is not recommended, and should be necessary only as a last resort; the scouring action of some chemical cleaners may lead to other cooling system problems. Normally, regular renewal of the coolant will prevent excessive contamination of the system.

Coolant filling

14 With the cooling system drained and flushed, ensure that all disturbed hose unions are correctly secured. If it was raised, lower the vehicle to the ground.
15 Set the heater temperature control to maximum heat, but ensure the blower is turned off.
16 Prepare a sufficient quantity of the specified coolant mixture (see below); allow for a surplus, so as to have a reserve supply for topping-up.
Coolant quantity 5.5 litres
Antifreeze type Motorcraft SuperPlus pink/red antifreeze Ford specification WSS-M97B44-D
17 Slowly fill the system through the expansion tank. Since the tank is the highest point in the system, all the air in the system should be displaced into the tank by the rising liquid. Slow pouring reduces the possibility of air being trapped and forming airlocks.
18 Continue filling until the coolant level reaches the expansion tank MAX level line (see illustration) , then refit the filler cap.
Fill the cooling system until the lever reaches the MAX line on the expansion tank
19 Start the engine and run it at 2500 rpm for 15 minutes. If the level in the expansion tank drops significantly, top-up to the MAX level line, to minimise the amount of air circulating in the system.
20 Increase the engine speed to 5000 rpm, then allow it to return to idle. Repeat this sequence 6 times.
21 Increase the engine speed to 4000 rpm, maintain this speed for 10 seconds, then reduce the engine speed to 2500 rpm and maintain this speed for 10 minutes.
22 Stop the engine, then leave the car to cool down completely (overnight, if possible).
23 With the system cool, open the expansion tank, and top-up the tank to the MAX level line. Refit the filler cap, tightening it securely, and clean up any spillage.
24 After refilling, always check carefully all components of the system (but especially any unions disturbed during draining and flushing) for signs of coolant leaks. Fresh antifreeze has a searching action, which will rapidly expose any weak points in the system.

Antifreeze type and mixture

Caution: Do not use engine antifreeze in the windscreen/tailgate washer system, as it will damage the vehicle’s paintwork. A screenwash additive should be added to the washer system in its maker’s recommended quantities.
25 If the vehicle’s history (and therefore the quality of the antifreeze in it) is unknown, owners are advised to drain and thoroughly reverse-flush the system, before refilling with fresh coolant mixture.
26 If the antifreeze used is to Ford’s specification, the levels of protection it affords are indicated in the coolant packaging.
27 To give the recommended standard mixture ratio for antifreeze, 50% (by volume) of antifreeze must be mixed with 50% of clean, soft water; if you are using any other type of antifreeze, follow its manufacturer’s instructions to achieve the correct ratio.
28 You are unlikely to fully drain the system at any one time (unless the engine is being completely stripped), and the capacities quoted in the Specifications are therefore slightly academic for routine coolant renewal. As a guide, only two-thirds of the system’s total capacity is likely to be needed for coolant renewal.
29 As the drained system will be partially filled with flushing water, in order to establish the recommended mixture ratio, measure out 50% of the system capacity in antifreeze and pour it into the hose/expansion tank as described above, then top-up with water.
30 Before adding antifreeze, the cooling system should be drained, preferably flushed, and all hoses checked for condition and security. As noted earlier, fresh antifreeze will rapidly find any weaknesses in the system.
31 After filling with antifreeze, a label should be attached to the expansion tank, stating the type and concentration of antifreeze used, and the date installed. Any subsequent topping-up should be made with the same type and concentration of antifreeze.

General cooling system checks

32 The engine should be cold for the cooling system checks, so perform the following procedure before driving the vehicle, or after it has been shut off for at least three hours.
33 Remove the expansion tank filler cap, and clean it thoroughly inside and out with a rag. Also clean the filler neck on the expansion tank. The presence of rust or corrosion in the filler neck indicates that the coolant should be changed. The coolant inside the expansion tank should be relatively clean and transparent. If it is rust-coloured, drain and flush the system, and refill with a fresh coolant mixture.
34 Carefully check the radiator hoses and heater hoses along their entire length; renew any hose which is cracked, swollen or deteriorated.
35 Inspect all other cooling system components (joint faces, etc) for leaks. A leak in the cooling system will usually show up as white- or antifreeze-coloured deposits on the area adjoining the leak. Where any problems of this nature are found on system components, renew the component or gasket.

Airlocks

36 If, after draining and refilling the system, symptoms of overheating are found which did not occur previously, then the fault is almost certainly due to trapped air at some point in the system, causing an airlock and restricting the flow of coolant; usually, the air is trapped because the system was refilled too quickly.
37 If an airlock is suspected, first try gently squeezing all visible coolant hoses. A coolant hose which is full of air feels quite different to one full of coolant when squeezed. After refilling the system, most airlocks will clear once the system has cooled, and been topped-up.
38 While the engine is running at operating temperature, switch on the heater and heater fan, and check for heat output. Provided there is sufficient coolant in the system, lack of heat output could be due to an airlock in the system.
39 Airlocks can have more serious effects than simply reducing heater output – a severe airlock could reduce coolant flow around the engine. Check that the radiator top hose is hot when the engine is at operating temperature – a top hose which stays cold could be the result of an airlock (or a non-opening thermostat).
40 If the problem persists, stop the engine and allow it to cool down completely, before unscrewing the expansion tank filler cap or loosening the hose clips and squeezing the hoses to bleed out the trapped air. In the worst case, the system will have to be at least partially drained (this time, the coolant can be saved for re-use) and flushed to clear the problem. If all else fails, have the system evacuated and vacuum filled by a suitably-equipped garage.

Expansion tank cap check

41 Wait until the engine is completely cold – perform this check before the engine is started for the first time in the day.
42 Place a wad of cloth over the expansion tank cap, then unscrew it slowly and remove it.
43 Examine the condition of the rubber seal on the underside of the cap. If the rubber appears to have hardened, or cracks are visible in the seal edges, a new cap should be fitted.
44 If the car is several years old, or has covered a large mileage, consider renewing the cap regardless of its apparent condition – they are not expensive. If the pressure relief valve built into the cap fails, excess pressure in the system will lead to puzzling failures of hoses and other cooling system components.
Antifreeze type Motorcraft SuperPlus pink/red antifreeze Ford specification WSS-M97B44-D

Brake and clutch fluid level

Note: All manual transmission models have a hydraulically-operated clutch, which uses the same fluid as the braking system.
Warning: Hydraulic fluid can harm your eyes and damage painted surfaces, so use extreme caution when handling and pouring it.
Warning: Do not use fluid that has been standing open for some time, as it absorbs moisture from the air, which can cause a dangerous loss of braking effectiveness.

Safety first!

6 If the reservoir requires repeated topping-up this is an indication of a fluid leak somewhere in the system, which should be investigated immediately.
7 If a leak is suspected, the car should not be driven until the braking system has been checked. Never take any risks where brakes are concerned
8 The fluid level in the reservoir will drop slightly as the brake pads and shoes wear down, but the fluid level must never be allowed to drop below the MIN mark.

Before you start

The MAX and MIN marks are indicated on the side of the reservoir. The fluid level must be kept between the marks at all times.
If topping-up is necessary, first wipe clean the area around the filler cap to prevent dirt entering the hydraulic system. Unscrew the reservoir cap.
Carefully add fluid, taking care not to spill it onto the surrounding components. Use only DOT 4 fluid; mixing different types can cause damage to the system. After topping-up to the correct level, securely refit the cap and wipe off any spilt fluid.

Screen washer fluid level

9 Screenwash additives not only keep the windscreen clean during bad weather, they also prevent the washer system freezing in cold weather – which is when you are likely to need it most. Don’t top-up using plain water, as the screenwash will become diluted, and will freeze in cold weather.
Warning: On no account use engine coolant antifreeze in the screen washer system – this may damage the paintwork.
The reservoir for the windscreen and rear window washer systems is located on the left-hand side of the engine compartment. If topping-up is necessary, open the filler cap.
When topping-up the reservoir a screenwash additive should be added in the quantities recommended on the bottle.
- Close + Open

Wiper blade replacement

Check the condition of the wiper blades; if they are cracked or show any signs of deterioration, or if the glass swept area is smeared, renew them. Wiper blades should be renewed annually.
To remove a windscreen wiper blade, pull the arm fully away from the screen until it locks. Depress the tab on the side of the wiper arm.
Disengage the blade from the end of the arm and lift away the blade.
Don’t forget to check the tailgate wiper blade as well which is removed by simply disengaging the blade pivot pin from the end of the arm.
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