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Fluid level checks Ford Focus 2001 - 2005 Petrol 1.4

OnDemand step-by-step maintenance & repair BETA

Ford Focus 2001 - 2005  | 1.4 Fluid level checks

  • time 5 to 30 minutes
  • difficulty 1

Underbonnet check points

Petrol engine (1.6 litre) A Engine oil level dipstick B Engine oil filler cap C Coolant expansion tank D Brake and clutch fluid reservoir E Power steering fluid reservoir F Screen washer fluid reservoir G Battery
Diesel engine (DuraTorq-TDCi) A Engine oil level dipstick B Engine oil filler cap C Coolant expansion tank D Brake and clutch fluid reservoir E Power steering fluid reservoir F Screen washer fluid reservoir G Battery

Engine oil level

HINT: If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of the oil will remain in the upper engine components, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.

The correct oil

1 Modern engines place great demands on their oil. It is very important that the correct oil for your car is used.
Engine oil grade Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 5W/30, 5W/40 or 10W/40*, to Ford specification WSS-M2C913-A or WSS-M2C912-A1, API SH, ACEA A1/B1 or A3/B3
* SAE 5W/30 is the preferred recommendation. Do not use engine oils of higher viscosity, eg, 15W/40, 15W/50 or 20W/50, as doing so may lead to engine running problems. Certain oil additives may increase effective oil viscosity, and are not recommended in these engines.

Car Care

The dipstick top is yellow for easy identification (see Underbonnet check points for exact location). Withdraw the dipstick. Using a clean rag or paper towel, remove all oil from the dipstick.
Insert the clean dipstick into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it again. Note the oil level on the end of the dipstick, which should be between the MAX and MIN marks. If the oil level is only just above, or below, the MIN mark, topping-up is required.
Oil is added through the filler cap. Unscrew the cap . . .
. . . and top‑up the level; a funnel may be useful in reducing spillage. Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick often, and allowing time for the oil to run to the sump. Add oil until the level is just up to the MAX mark on the dipstick – don’t overfill. If you need to renew the oil and filter, click below
- Close + Open

Engine oil and filter change

1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the most important preventative maintenance procedures which can be undertaken by the DIY owner. As engine oil ages, it becomes diluted and contaminated, which leads to premature engine wear.
2 Before starting this procedure, gather together all the necessary tools and materials. Also make sure that you have plenty of clean rags and newspapers handy, to mop-up any spills. Ideally, the engine oil should be warm, as it will drain more easily, and more built-up sludge will be removed with it.
3 Take care not to touch the exhaust (especially the catalytic converter) or any other hot parts of the engine when working under the vehicle. To avoid any possibility of scalding, and to protect yourself from possible skin irritants and other harmful contaminants in used engine oils, it is advisable to wear gloves when carrying out this work.
4 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the vehicle and support it on axle stands.
5 Remove the oil filler cap.
6 Using a spanner, or preferably a socket and bar, slacken the drain plug (at the rear of the sump) about half a turn (see illustration) . Position the draining container under the drain plug, then remove the plug completely.
Engine oil drain plug at rear of sump
HINT: As the plug releases from the threads, move it away sharply, so that the stream of oil from the sump runs into the container, not up your sleeve.
7 Allow some time for the oil to drain, noting that it may be necessary to reposition the container as the oil flow slows to a trickle.
8 After all the oil has drained, wipe the drain plug with a clean rag. Examine the condition of the drain plug sealing ring, and renew it if it shows signs of flattening or other damage which may prevent an oil-tight seal (it is generally considered good practice to fit a new seal every time, but on the Focus the seal is not available separately from the drain plug). Clean the area around the drain plug opening, and refit the plug complete with the seal and tighten it to the specified torque.
Engine oil drain plug: Nm Ibf ft
  1.4 and 1.6 litre engines 37 27
  1.8 and 2.0 litre engines 24 18
9 Move the container into position under the oil filter, which is located on the front of the cylinder block on 1.4 and 1.6 litre models, and on the rear of the block on 1.8 and 2.0 litre models (see illustration) .
Oil filter location at front of engine – 1.4 and 1.6 litre models
10 Use an oil filter removal tool if necessary to slacken the filter initially, then unscrew it by hand the rest of the way (see illustration) . Empty the oil from the old filter into the container.
Use a chain wrench to loosen the oil filter
11 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt and sludge from the filter sealing area on the engine.
12 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter, then screw the filter into position on the engine. Tighten the filter firmly by hand only – do not use any tools.
13 Remove the old oil and all tools from under the car, then lower the car to the ground.
14 With the car on level ground, fill the engine, using the correct grade and type of oil. An oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce spillage. Pour in half the specified quantity of oil first, then wait a few minutes for the oil to run to the sump.
Engine oil quantity:
  1.4 litre engines 3.75 litres
  All other engines 4.25 litres
Engine oil grade Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 5W/30, 5W/40 or 10W/40*, to Ford specification WSS-M2C913-A or WSS-M2C912-A1, API SH, ACEA A1/B1 or A3/B3
* SAE 5W/30 is the preferred recommendation. Do not use engine oils of higher viscosity, eg, 15W/40, 15W/50 or 20W/50, as doing so may lead to engine running problems. Certain oil additives may increase effective oil viscosity, and are not recommended in these engines.
15 Continue adding oil a small quantity at a time until the level is up to the MIN mark on the dipstick. Adding around 1.0 litre of oil will now bring the level up to the MAX on the dipstick – do not worry if a little too much goes in, as some of the excess will be taken up in filling the oil filter. Refit the dipstick and the filler cap.
16 Start the engine and run it for a few minutes; check for leaks around the oil filter seal and the sump drain plug. Note that there may be a few seconds’ delay before the oil pressure warning light goes out when the engine is started, as the oil circulates through the engine oil galleries and the new oil filter before the pressure builds-up.
17 Switch off the engine, and wait a few minutes for the oil to settle in the sump once more. With the new oil circulated and the filter completely full, recheck the level on the dipstick, and add more oil as necessary.
18 Dispose of the used engine oil and the old oil filter safely. Many local recycling points have containers for waste oil, with oil filter disposal receptacles alongside.
- Close + Open

Engine oil and filter change

1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the most important preventative maintenance procedures which can be undertaken by the DIY owner. As engine oil ages, it becomes diluted and contaminated, which leads to premature engine wear.
2 Before starting this procedure, gather together all the necessary tools and materials. Also make sure that you have plenty of clean rags and newspapers handy, to mop-up any spills. Ideally, the engine oil should be warm, as it will drain more easily, and more built-up sludge will be removed with it.
3 Take care not to touch the exhaust (especially the catalytic converter) or any other hot parts of the engine when working under the vehicle. To avoid any possibility of scalding, and to protect yourself from possible skin irritants and other harmful contaminants in used engine oils, it is advisable to wear gloves when carrying out this work.
4 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of the vehicle and support it on axle stands.
5 Remove the oil filler cap.
6 Using a spanner, or preferably a socket and bar, slacken the drain plug (at the rear of the sump) about half a turn (see illustration) . Position the draining container under the drain plug, then remove the plug completely.
Engine oil drain plug at rear of sump
HINT: As the plug releases from the threads, move it away sharply, so that the stream of oil from the sump runs into the container, not up your sleeve.
7 Allow some time for the oil to drain, noting that it may be necessary to reposition the container as the oil flow slows to a trickle.
8 After all the oil has drained, wipe the drain plug with a clean rag. Examine the condition of the drain plug sealing ring, and renew it if it shows signs of flattening or other damage which may prevent an oil-tight seal (it is generally considered good practice to fit a new seal every time, but on the Focus the seal is not available separately from the drain plug). Clean the area around the drain plug opening, and refit the plug complete with the seal and tighten it to the specified torque.
Engine oil drain plug: Nm Ibf ft
  1.4 and 1.6 litre engines 37 27
  1.8 and 2.0 litre engines 24 18
9 Move the container into position under the oil filter, which is located on the front of the cylinder block on 1.4 and 1.6 litre models, and on the rear of the block on 1.8 and 2.0 litre models (see illustration) .
Oil filter location at front of engine – 1.4 and 1.6 litre models
10 Use an oil filter removal tool if necessary to slacken the filter initially, then unscrew it by hand the rest of the way (see illustration) . Empty the oil from the old filter into the container.
Use a chain wrench to loosen the oil filter
11 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt and sludge from the filter sealing area on the engine.
12 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the sealing ring on the new filter, then screw the filter into position on the engine. Tighten the filter firmly by hand only – do not use any tools.
13 Remove the old oil and all tools from under the car, then lower the car to the ground.
14 With the car on level ground, fill the engine, using the correct grade and type of oil. An oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce spillage. Pour in half the specified quantity of oil first, then wait a few minutes for the oil to run to the sump.
Engine oil quantity:
  1.4 litre engines 3.75 litres
  All other engines 4.25 litres
Engine oil grade Multigrade engine oil, viscosity SAE 5W/30, 5W/40 or 10W/40*, to Ford specification WSS-M2C913-A or WSS-M2C912-A1, API SH, ACEA A1/B1 or A3/B3
* SAE 5W/30 is the preferred recommendation. Do not use engine oils of higher viscosity, eg, 15W/40, 15W/50 or 20W/50, as doing so may lead to engine running problems. Certain oil additives may increase effective oil viscosity, and are not recommended in these engines.
15 Continue adding oil a small quantity at a time until the level is up to the MIN mark on the dipstick. Adding around 1.0 litre of oil will now bring the level up to the MAX on the dipstick – do not worry if a little too much goes in, as some of the excess will be taken up in filling the oil filter. Refit the dipstick and the filler cap.
16 Start the engine and run it for a few minutes; check for leaks around the oil filter seal and the sump drain plug. Note that there may be a few seconds’ delay before the oil pressure warning light goes out when the engine is started, as the oil circulates through the engine oil galleries and the new oil filter before the pressure builds-up.
17 Switch off the engine, and wait a few minutes for the oil to settle in the sump once more. With the new oil circulated and the filter completely full, recheck the level on the dipstick, and add more oil as necessary.
18 Dispose of the used engine oil and the old oil filter safely. Many local recycling points have containers for waste oil, with oil filter disposal receptacles alongside.

Coolant level

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very great risk of scalding. Do not leave open containers of coolant about, as it is poisonous.

Car Care

The coolant level varies with the temperature of the engine, and is visible through the expansion tank. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the MAX and MIN marks on the front of the reservoir. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the MAX mark.
1f If topping-up is necessary, wait until the engine is cold. Slowly unscrew the expansion tank cap, to release any pressure present in the cooling system, and remove it.
Add a mixture of water and antifreeze to the expansion tank until the coolant level is halfway between the level marks. Use only the specified antifreeze – if using Ford antifreeze, make sure it is the same type and colour as that already in the system. Refit the cap and tighten it securely. Should you need to replace the coolant, click below
- Close + Open

Coolant replacement

Note: If the antifreeze used is Ford’s own, or of similar quality, Ford state that the coolant need not be renewed for 6 years (blue/green coolant) or for 10 years (orange coolant). If the vehicle’s history is unknown, if antifreeze of lesser quality is known to be in the system, or simply if you prefer to follow conventional servicing intervals, the coolant should be changed periodically (typically, every 2 years) as described here.
Warning: Do not allow antifreeze to come in contact with your skin or painted surfaces of the vehicle. Flush contaminated areas immediately with plenty of water. Don’t store new coolant, or leave old coolant lying around, where it’s accessible to children or pets – they’re attracted by its sweet smell. Ingestion of even a small amount of coolant can be fatal. Wipe up garage-floor and drip-pan spills immediately. Keep antifreeze containers covered, and repair cooling system leaks as soon as they’re noticed.
Warning: Never remove the expansion tank filler cap when the engine is running, or has just been switched off, as the cooling system will be hot, and the consequent escaping steam and scalding coolant could cause serious injury.

Coolant draining

Warning: Wait until the engine is cold before starting this procedure.
1 To drain the system, first remove the expansion tank filler cap.
2 If the additional working clearance is required, raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on axle stands.
3 Place a large drain tray underneath, and unscrew the radiator drain plug (see illustration) ; direct as much of the escaping coolant as possible into the tray.
Radiator drain plug

System flushing

4 With time, the cooling system may gradually lose its efficiency, as the radiator core becomes choked with rust, scale deposits from the water, and other sediment. To minimise this, as well as using only good-quality antifreeze and clean soft water, the system should be flushed as follows whenever any part of it is disturbed, and/or when the coolant is renewed.
5 With the coolant drained, refit the drain plug and refill the system with fresh water. Refit the expansion tank filler cap, start the engine and warm it up to normal operating temperature, then stop it and (after allowing it to cool down completely) drain the system again. Repeat as necessary until only clean water can be seen to emerge, then refill finally with the specified coolant mixture.
6 If only clean, soft water and good-quality antifreeze (even if not to Ford’s specification) has been used, and the coolant has been renewed at the suggested intervals, the above procedure will be sufficient to keep clean the system for a considerable length of time. If, however, the system has been neglected, a more thorough operation will be required, as follows.
7 First drain the coolant, then disconnect the radiator top and bottom hoses (see illustration) . Insert a garden hose into the radiator top hose connection, and allow water to circulate through the radiator until it runs clean from the bottom outlet.
Radiator bottom hose connection
8 To flush the engine, insert the garden hose into the radiator bottom hose, wrap a piece of rag around the garden hose to seal the connection, and allow water to circulate until it runs clear.
9 Try the effect of repeating this procedure in the top hose, although this may not be effective, since the thermostat will probably close and prevent the flow of water.
10 In severe cases of contamination, reverse-flushing of the radiator may be necessary. This may be achieved by inserting the garden hose into the bottom outlet, wrapping a piece of rag around the hose to seal the connection, then flushing the radiator until clear water emerges from the top hose outlet.
11 If the radiator is suspected of being severely choked, remove the radiator, turn it upside-down, and repeat the procedure described in paragraph 10.
12 Flushing the heater matrix can be achieved using a similar procedure to that described in paragraph 10, once the heater inlet and outlet hoses have been identified. These two hoses will be of the same diameter, and pass through the engine compartment bulkhead (refer to the Haynes manual for more details).
13 The use of chemical cleaners is not recommended, and should be necessary only as a last resort; the scouring action of some chemical cleaners may lead to other cooling system problems. Normally, regular renewal of the coolant will prevent excessive contamination of the system.

Coolant filling

14 With the cooling system drained and flushed, ensure that all disturbed hose unions are correctly secured, and that the radiator drain plug is securely tightened. If it was raised, lower the vehicle to the ground.
15 Prepare a sufficient quantity of the specified coolant mixture (see below); allow for a surplus, so as to have a reserve supply for topping-up.
Coolant quantity:
  1.4 and 1.6 litre engines 5.0 litres
  1.8 and 2.0 litre engines 5.75 litres

1.4 and 1.6 litre models

16 Disconnect the heater supply hose, located at the rear of the engine compartment.
17 Using a funnel, slowly fill the cooling system via the disconnected supply hose, until coolant emerges from the heater, then reconnect the hose.

All models

18 Slowly fill the system through the expansion tank. Since the tank is the highest point in the system, all the air in the system should be displaced into the tank by the rising liquid. Slow pouring reduces the possibility of air being trapped and forming airlocks.
19 Continue filling until the coolant level reaches the expansion tank MAX level line, then cover the filler opening to prevent coolant splashing out.
20 Start the engine and run it at idle speed, until it has warmed-up to normal operating temperature and the radiator electric cooling fan has cut in; watch the temperature gauge to check for signs of overheating. If the level in the expansion tank drops significantly, top-up to the MAX level line, to minimise the amount of air circulating in the system.
21 Stop the engine, wash off any spilt coolant from the engine compartment and bodywork, then leave the car to cool down completely (overnight, if possible).
22 With the system cool, uncover the expansion tank filler opening, and top-up the tank to the MAX level line. Refit the filler cap, tightening it securely, and clean up any further spillage.
23 After refilling, always check carefully all components of the system (but especially any unions disturbed during draining and flushing) for signs of coolant leaks. Fresh antifreeze has a searching action, which will rapidly expose any weak points in the system.

Antifreeze type and mixture

Note: Do not use engine antifreeze in the windscreen/tailgate washer system, as it will damage the vehicle’s paintwork. A screenwash additive should be added to the washer system in its maker’s recommended quantities.
24 When new, the cooling system in the Focus will have been filled with Super Plus 4 antifreeze (which is blue/green), to specification ESD-M97B-49-A. More recently, the system will have Super Plus 2000 antifreeze (which is orange) to specification WSS-M97 B44-D. The two types of coolant must not be mixed with each other, and should also not be mixed with any other type of coolant.
25 If the vehicle’s history (and therefore the quality of the antifreeze in it) is unknown, owners are advised to drain and thoroughly reverse-flush the system, before refilling with fresh coolant mixture. If the Ford antifreeze is used, the coolant can then be left for 6 years (Super Plus 4, blue/green coolant type) or 10 years (Super Plus 2000, orange coolant type).
26 If any antifreeze other than Ford’s is to be used, the coolant must be renewed at regular intervals to provide an equivalent degree of protection; the conventional recommendation is to renew the coolant every two years.
27 To give the recommended standard mixture ratio for antifreeze, 50% (by volume) of antifreeze must be mixed with 50% of clean, soft water; if you are using any other type of antifreeze, follow its manufacturer’s instructions to achieve the correct ratio.
28 You are unlikely to fully drain the system at any one time (unless the engine is being completely stripped), and the capacities quoted in Specifications are therefore slightly academic for routine coolant renewal. As a guide, only two-thirds of the system’s total capacity is likely to be needed for coolant renewal.
29 As the drained system will be partially filled with flushing water, in order to establish the recommended mixture ratio, measure out 50% of the system capacity in antifreeze and pour it into the hose/expansion tank as described above, then top-up with water. Any topping-up while refilling the system should be done with water – for topping up use a suitable mixture.
30 Before adding antifreeze, the cooling system should be completely drained, preferably flushed, and all hoses checked for condition and security. Fresh antifreeze will rapidly find any weaknesses in the system.
31 After filling with antifreeze, a label should be attached to the expansion tank, stating the type and concentration of antifreeze used, and the date installed. Any subsequent topping-up should be made with the same type and concentration of antifreeze.

General cooling system checks

32 The engine should be cold for the cooling system checks, so perform the following procedure before driving the vehicle, or after it has been shut off for at least three hours.
33 Remove the expansion tank filler cap, and clean it thoroughly inside and out with a rag. Also clean the filler neck on the expansion tank. The presence of rust or corrosion in the filler neck indicates that the coolant should be changed. The coolant inside the expansion tank should be relatively clean and transparent. If it is rust-coloured, drain and flush the system, and refill with a fresh coolant mixture.
34 Carefully check the radiator hoses and heater hoses along their entire length; renew any hose which is cracked, swollen or deteriorated.
35 Inspect all other cooling system components (joint faces, etc) for leaks. A leak in the cooling system will usually show up as white- or rust-coloured deposits on the area adjoining the leak. Where any problems of this nature are found on system components, renew the component or gasket.
36 Clean the front of the radiator with a soft brush to remove all insects, leaves, etc, embedded in the radiator fins. Be careful not to damage the radiator fins, or cut your fingers on them.

Airlocks

37 If, after draining and refilling the system, symptoms of overheating are found which did not occur previously, then the fault is almost certainly due to trapped air at some point in the system, causing an airlock and restricting the flow of coolant; usually, the air is trapped because the system was refilled too quickly.
38 If an airlock is suspected, first try gently squeezing all visible coolant hoses. A coolant hose which is full of air feels quite different to one full of coolant, when squeezed. After refilling the system, most airlocks will clear once the system has cooled, and been topped-up.
39 While the engine is running at operating temperature, switch on the heater and heater fan, and check for heat output. Provided there is sufficient coolant in the system, lack of heat output could be due to an airlock in the system.
40 Airlocks can have more serious effects than simply reducing heater output – a severe airlock could reduce coolant flow around the engine. Check that the radiator top hose is hot when the engine is at operating temperature – a top hose which stays cold could be the result of an airlock (or a non-opening thermostat).
41 If the problem persists, stop the engine and allow it to cool down completely , before unscrewing the expansion tank filler cap or loosening the hose clips and squeezing the hoses to bleed out the trapped air. In the worst case, the system will have to be at least partially drained (this time, the coolant can be saved for re-use) and flushed to clear the problem.

Expansion tank pressure cap check

42 Wait until the engine is completely cold – perform this check before the engine is started for the first time in the day.
43 Place a wad of cloth over the expansion tank cap, then unscrew it slowly and remove it.
44 Examine the condition of the rubber seal on the underside of the cap. If the rubber appears to have hardened, or cracks are visible in the seal edges, a new cap should be fitted.
45 If the car is several years old, or has covered a large mileage, consider renewing the cap regardless of its apparent condition – they are not expensive. If the pressure relief valve built into the cap fails, excess pressure in the system will lead to puzzling failures of hoses and other cooling system components.
- Close + Open

Coolant replacement

Note: If the antifreeze used is Ford’s own, or of similar quality, Ford state that the coolant need not be renewed for 6 years (blue/green coolant) or for 10 years (orange coolant). If the vehicle’s history is unknown, if antifreeze of lesser quality is known to be in the system, or simply if you prefer to follow conventional servicing intervals, the coolant should be changed periodically (typically, every 2 years) as described here.
Warning: Do not allow antifreeze to come in contact with your skin or painted surfaces of the vehicle. Flush contaminated areas immediately with plenty of water. Don’t store new coolant, or leave old coolant lying around, where it’s accessible to children or pets – they’re attracted by its sweet smell. Ingestion of even a small amount of coolant can be fatal. Wipe up garage-floor and drip-pan spills immediately. Keep antifreeze containers covered, and repair cooling system leaks as soon as they’re noticed.
Warning: Never remove the expansion tank filler cap when the engine is running, or has just been switched off, as the cooling system will be hot, and the consequent escaping steam and scalding coolant could cause serious injury.

Coolant draining

Warning: Wait until the engine is cold before starting this procedure.
1 To drain the system, first remove the expansion tank filler cap.
2 If the additional working clearance is required, raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on axle stands.
3 Place a large drain tray underneath, and unscrew the radiator drain plug (see illustration) ; direct as much of the escaping coolant as possible into the tray.
Radiator drain plug

System flushing

4 With time, the cooling system may gradually lose its efficiency, as the radiator core becomes choked with rust, scale deposits from the water, and other sediment. To minimise this, as well as using only good-quality antifreeze and clean soft water, the system should be flushed as follows whenever any part of it is disturbed, and/or when the coolant is renewed.
5 With the coolant drained, refit the drain plug and refill the system with fresh water. Refit the expansion tank filler cap, start the engine and warm it up to normal operating temperature, then stop it and (after allowing it to cool down completely) drain the system again. Repeat as necessary until only clean water can be seen to emerge, then refill finally with the specified coolant mixture.
6 If only clean, soft water and good-quality antifreeze (even if not to Ford’s specification) has been used, and the coolant has been renewed at the suggested intervals, the above procedure will be sufficient to keep clean the system for a considerable length of time. If, however, the system has been neglected, a more thorough operation will be required, as follows.
7 First drain the coolant, then disconnect the radiator top and bottom hoses (see illustration) . Insert a garden hose into the radiator top hose connection, and allow water to circulate through the radiator until it runs clean from the bottom outlet.
Radiator bottom hose connection
8 To flush the engine, insert the garden hose into the radiator bottom hose, wrap a piece of rag around the garden hose to seal the connection, and allow water to circulate until it runs clear.
9 Try the effect of repeating this procedure in the top hose, although this may not be effective, since the thermostat will probably close and prevent the flow of water.
10 In severe cases of contamination, reverse-flushing of the radiator may be necessary. This may be achieved by inserting the garden hose into the bottom outlet, wrapping a piece of rag around the hose to seal the connection, then flushing the radiator until clear water emerges from the top hose outlet.
11 If the radiator is suspected of being severely choked, remove the radiator, turn it upside-down, and repeat the procedure described in paragraph 10.
12 Flushing the heater matrix can be achieved using a similar procedure to that described in paragraph 10, once the heater inlet and outlet hoses have been identified. These two hoses will be of the same diameter, and pass through the engine compartment bulkhead (refer to the Haynes manual for more details).
13 The use of chemical cleaners is not recommended, and should be necessary only as a last resort; the scouring action of some chemical cleaners may lead to other cooling system problems. Normally, regular renewal of the coolant will prevent excessive contamination of the system.

Coolant filling

14 With the cooling system drained and flushed, ensure that all disturbed hose unions are correctly secured, and that the radiator drain plug is securely tightened. If it was raised, lower the vehicle to the ground.
15 Prepare a sufficient quantity of the specified coolant mixture (see below); allow for a surplus, so as to have a reserve supply for topping-up.
Coolant quantity:
  1.4 and 1.6 litre engines 5.0 litres
  1.8 and 2.0 litre engines 5.75 litres

1.4 and 1.6 litre models

16 Disconnect the heater supply hose, located at the rear of the engine compartment.
17 Using a funnel, slowly fill the cooling system via the disconnected supply hose, until coolant emerges from the heater, then reconnect the hose.

All models

18 Slowly fill the system through the expansion tank. Since the tank is the highest point in the system, all the air in the system should be displaced into the tank by the rising liquid. Slow pouring reduces the possibility of air being trapped and forming airlocks.
19 Continue filling until the coolant level reaches the expansion tank MAX level line, then cover the filler opening to prevent coolant splashing out.
20 Start the engine and run it at idle speed, until it has warmed-up to normal operating temperature and the radiator electric cooling fan has cut in; watch the temperature gauge to check for signs of overheating. If the level in the expansion tank drops significantly, top-up to the MAX level line, to minimise the amount of air circulating in the system.
21 Stop the engine, wash off any spilt coolant from the engine compartment and bodywork, then leave the car to cool down completely (overnight, if possible).
22 With the system cool, uncover the expansion tank filler opening, and top-up the tank to the MAX level line. Refit the filler cap, tightening it securely, and clean up any further spillage.
23 After refilling, always check carefully all components of the system (but especially any unions disturbed during draining and flushing) for signs of coolant leaks. Fresh antifreeze has a searching action, which will rapidly expose any weak points in the system.

Antifreeze type and mixture

Note: Do not use engine antifreeze in the windscreen/tailgate washer system, as it will damage the vehicle’s paintwork. A screenwash additive should be added to the washer system in its maker’s recommended quantities.
24 When new, the cooling system in the Focus will have been filled with Super Plus 4 antifreeze (which is blue/green), to specification ESD-M97B-49-A. More recently, the system will have Super Plus 2000 antifreeze (which is orange) to specification WSS-M97 B44-D. The two types of coolant must not be mixed with each other, and should also not be mixed with any other type of coolant.
25 If the vehicle’s history (and therefore the quality of the antifreeze in it) is unknown, owners are advised to drain and thoroughly reverse-flush the system, before refilling with fresh coolant mixture. If the Ford antifreeze is used, the coolant can then be left for 6 years (Super Plus 4, blue/green coolant type) or 10 years (Super Plus 2000, orange coolant type).
26 If any antifreeze other than Ford’s is to be used, the coolant must be renewed at regular intervals to provide an equivalent degree of protection; the conventional recommendation is to renew the coolant every two years.
27 To give the recommended standard mixture ratio for antifreeze, 50% (by volume) of antifreeze must be mixed with 50% of clean, soft water; if you are using any other type of antifreeze, follow its manufacturer’s instructions to achieve the correct ratio.
28 You are unlikely to fully drain the system at any one time (unless the engine is being completely stripped), and the capacities quoted in Specifications are therefore slightly academic for routine coolant renewal. As a guide, only two-thirds of the system’s total capacity is likely to be needed for coolant renewal.
29 As the drained system will be partially filled with flushing water, in order to establish the recommended mixture ratio, measure out 50% of the system capacity in antifreeze and pour it into the hose/expansion tank as described above, then top-up with water. Any topping-up while refilling the system should be done with water – for topping up use a suitable mixture.
30 Before adding antifreeze, the cooling system should be completely drained, preferably flushed, and all hoses checked for condition and security. Fresh antifreeze will rapidly find any weaknesses in the system.
31 After filling with antifreeze, a label should be attached to the expansion tank, stating the type and concentration of antifreeze used, and the date installed. Any subsequent topping-up should be made with the same type and concentration of antifreeze.

General cooling system checks

32 The engine should be cold for the cooling system checks, so perform the following procedure before driving the vehicle, or after it has been shut off for at least three hours.
33 Remove the expansion tank filler cap, and clean it thoroughly inside and out with a rag. Also clean the filler neck on the expansion tank. The presence of rust or corrosion in the filler neck indicates that the coolant should be changed. The coolant inside the expansion tank should be relatively clean and transparent. If it is rust-coloured, drain and flush the system, and refill with a fresh coolant mixture.
34 Carefully check the radiator hoses and heater hoses along their entire length; renew any hose which is cracked, swollen or deteriorated.
35 Inspect all other cooling system components (joint faces, etc) for leaks. A leak in the cooling system will usually show up as white- or rust-coloured deposits on the area adjoining the leak. Where any problems of this nature are found on system components, renew the component or gasket.
36 Clean the front of the radiator with a soft brush to remove all insects, leaves, etc, embedded in the radiator fins. Be careful not to damage the radiator fins, or cut your fingers on them.

Airlocks

37 If, after draining and refilling the system, symptoms of overheating are found which did not occur previously, then the fault is almost certainly due to trapped air at some point in the system, causing an airlock and restricting the flow of coolant; usually, the air is trapped because the system was refilled too quickly.
38 If an airlock is suspected, first try gently squeezing all visible coolant hoses. A coolant hose which is full of air feels quite different to one full of coolant, when squeezed. After refilling the system, most airlocks will clear once the system has cooled, and been topped-up.
39 While the engine is running at operating temperature, switch on the heater and heater fan, and check for heat output. Provided there is sufficient coolant in the system, lack of heat output could be due to an airlock in the system.
40 Airlocks can have more serious effects than simply reducing heater output – a severe airlock could reduce coolant flow around the engine. Check that the radiator top hose is hot when the engine is at operating temperature – a top hose which stays cold could be the result of an airlock (or a non-opening thermostat).
41 If the problem persists, stop the engine and allow it to cool down completely , before unscrewing the expansion tank filler cap or loosening the hose clips and squeezing the hoses to bleed out the trapped air. In the worst case, the system will have to be at least partially drained (this time, the coolant can be saved for re-use) and flushed to clear the problem.

Expansion tank pressure cap check

42 Wait until the engine is completely cold – perform this check before the engine is started for the first time in the day.
43 Place a wad of cloth over the expansion tank cap, then unscrew it slowly and remove it.
44 Examine the condition of the rubber seal on the underside of the cap. If the rubber appears to have hardened, or cracks are visible in the seal edges, a new cap should be fitted.
45 If the car is several years old, or has covered a large mileage, consider renewing the cap regardless of its apparent condition – they are not expensive. If the pressure relief valve built into the cap fails, excess pressure in the system will lead to puzzling failures of hoses and other cooling system components.
Anti-freeze type Motorcraft Super Plus 4 antifreeze (blue/green) to Ford specification ESD-M97 B49-A, or Motorcraft Super Plus 2000 antifreeze (orange) to Ford specification WSS-M97 B44-D**
** Do not mix the two types of coolant listed with each other, nor top-up with any other type of coolant.

Brake and clutch fluid level

Note: All models have a hydraulically-operated clutch, which uses the same fluid as the braking system.
Warning: Brake fluid can harm your eyes and damage painted surfaces, so use extreme caution when handling and pouring it.
Warning: Do not use fluid that has been standing open for some time, as it absorbs moisture from the air, which can cause a dangerous loss of braking effectiveness.

Safety first!

The brake fluid reservoir is located on the left-hand side of the engine compartment.
The MAX and MIN marks are indicated on the front of the reservoir. The fluid level must be kept between the marks at all times.
If topping-up is necessary, first wipe clean the area around the filler cap to prevent dirt entering the hydraulic system. Unscrew the reservoir cap and carefully lift it out of position, holding the wiring connector plug and taking care not to damage the level sender float. Inspect the reservoir; if the fluid is dirty, the hydraulic system should be drained and refilled.
Carefully add fluid, taking care not to spill it onto the surrounding components. Use only DOT 4 fluid; mixing different types can cause damage to the system. After topping-up to the correct level, securely refit the cap and wipe off any split fluid.

Power steering fluid level

HINT: For the check to be accurate, the steering must not be turned once the engine has been stopped.
The reservoir is mounted at the rear of the engine compartment, next to the coolant expansion tank.
The fluid level can be viewed through the reservoir body, and should be between the MIN and MAX marks when thee ngine is cold. If the level is checked when the engine is running or hot, the level may rise slightly above the MAX mark.
If topping-up is necessary, use the specified type of fluid – do not overfill the reservoir. Take care not to introduce dirt into the system when topping-up. When the level is correct, securely refit the cap.
Power steering fluid Automatic transmission fluid to Ford specification WSA-M2C 195-A

Washer fluid level

The washer fluid reservoir filler neck is located on the left-hand side of the engine compartment, next to the battery.
The washer level cannot easily be seen. Remove the filler cap, and look down the filler neck – if fluid is not visible, topping-up may be required.
When topping-up the reservoir, add a screenwash additive in the quantities recommended on the additive bottle. It could also be time to replace the wiper blades. For details, click below
- Close + Open

Wiper blade replacement

Note: Fitting details for wiper blades vary according to model, and according to whether genuine Ford wiper blades have been fitted. Use the procedures and illustrations shown as a guide for your car.
HINT: If smearing is still a problem despite fitting new wiper blades, try cleaning the glass with neat screenwash additive or methylated spirit.
Check the condition of the wiper blades; if they are cracked or show any signs of deterioration, or if the glass swept area is smeared, renew them. Wiper blades should be renewed annually, regardless of their apparent condition.
To remove a windscreen wiper blade, pull the arm fully away from the glass until it locks. Swivel the blade through 90°, press the locking tab with your fingers and slide the blade out of the arm’s hooked end.
Don’t forget to check the tailgate wiper blade as well (where applicable). Remove the blade using a similar technique to the windscreen wiper blades.
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